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A quick primer on the technology behind our products:

Feedback, Brainwaves and Entrainment.  


brainwaves mind states chart

Our chart shows you the waveform, speed, mind state, and time of day most associated with each wave type.

the science of biofeedback and light and sound mind machines

The brain bustles with electrical activity during every moment of our lives.
Billions of neurons constantly firing on and off form waves that we call brainwaves.
These waves can be found bustling about at different speeds during any given time.

But there will always be a predominant speed where most of these waves synchronize.

The speed of a brainwave is called a frequency - this frequency is measured in Hertz.
Scientists who first measured these waves found that they were connected to mind states.
Brainwaves have been divided into four predominant speed ranges, or types.
Brainwave types are connected to different mind states, or states of consciousness.
Each brainwave type contains smaller bands relating to specific functions of body and mind.
Some complex mental states relate to specific frequencies that repeat in patterns.
There are also mind/body processes connected to single frequencies

Learn more about the mind/wave type connection in our 'Beneficial Uses' section.

the science of biofeedback and light and sound mind machines


Our Light & Sound Mind Machines can change your mind state by affecting your brainwaves.
If you're new to this technology, it may sound 'fantastic' or magical - but the changes they make to brainwaves are easy measure. These changes result from a universal and easy to understand scientific principle called entrainment.

The entrainment principle is simply the tendency for two oscillating bodies to lock into phase. Entrainment happens when the vibrations from two or more rhythm cycles stimulate each other into a synchronization - they harmonize.
This is called brainwave entrainment or the 'frequency following response' when it is used to change brainwaves.

The brain is constantly being stimulated, and our neurons ceaselessly fire off and on for as long as we live. This firing is the brain responding to stimulation. Neurons can sometimes even fire in rhythms that respond to the beat of music being listened to.

If the brain has been responding to the continuous stimulation of a frequency for around 5-6 minutes, it begins to generate the same rhythm on its own.

When the lights and sound from our machines pulse at the speed of normal brainwaves when a session begins, they quickly synchronize. Your brainwaves will then follow as the light and sound stimulation shifts into the frequencies of another mind state. This is called the frequency following effect, or entrainment. The scientific term when lights are used for this is usually 'Photic Driving'.

Each pulse of the stimulation being used must evoke enough of a response from the brain in order for entrainment to be effective. This response by the brain from sensory stimulation is called cortical evoked response. This can happen from any type of sensory stimulation, but the most effective combination is using light and sound. The most effective ways for using light and sound to do this are used by our light and sound machines.

Sound has a very small effect on brainwaves when used alone, and shifting a mindstate effectively requires more than stimulation from sound at a sustained frequency.
There are other products and methods on the market such as NLP and various software packages that use sound for entrainment - pulses of sound, music encoded with pulses of sound, different types of binaural beats, and combinations of these. But their own studies show that the effect of any sound based entrainment is much less when compared to light - and very minimal when compared to entrainment methods using synchronized light and sound.

Our machines use complex pulse patterns of light and sound that years of research show are best for the brainwave frequency following effect. The Proteus has two independently driven light channels - each one capable of stimulating at a seperate frequency, color and brightness. It includes sessions featuring new brainwave entrainment techniques that use these in combination with binaural and dual binaural beats.

Binaural Beats

A binaural beat is generated from two tones.
Each tone is of a slightly different pitch.
One tone is presented to the left ear, and the other to the right.
The two tones combine into a single tone sensed by your brain.
This single tone pulse is the stimulation when entraining with binaural beats.

Binaural beats are probably the most well-known stimulus used for entrainment. They have been shown to work, but some of the other audio entrainment techniques are more effective. Our machines produce binaural beats, dual binaural beats and other audio entrainment methods.

how does biofeedback work

Biofeedback can help you recognize mind/body responses that you didn't know you had, and teach you how to change the ones you know about but can't control.

Biofeedback works by letting you see, hear, or feel something that the sensors from a device have monitored from your body or mind.

What's monitored can be experienced through anything from an interactive video game, to a line chart. There are devices with sensors to monitor anything from the muscle tension of your left index finger, to the brainwaves of a specific location in your brain.

Biofeedback is a popular form of complementary and alternative medicine, but is also very beneficial for people who aren't looking to cure a specific disease or condition. It can help you improve your health and sense of well-being.

Once you learn to recognize and control these responses with biofeedback, you can begin to form new positive habits that continue throughout your life.

One of the best uses of biofeedback is the reduction of stress. Our light and sound biofeeback package is a very effective way to apply biofeedback for this.